[PDF] The epidemiology of superficial Streptococcal A (impetigo and pharyngitis) infections in Australia: A systematic review | Semantic Scholar (2024)

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94 References

Improving primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever in Australia: consensus primary care priorities identified through an eDelphi process
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Primary care staff priorities should inform Australia’s commitments to reduce the burden of RHD, and strategies to support comprehensive Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care services rather than an exclusive focus on discrete, disease-specific initiatives are needed.

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People at increased risk of ARF should be offered empirical antibiotic treatment of Strep A infections to reduce this risk, and risk-stratified primary prevention can reduce the inequitable burden of ARf and rheumatic heart disease in Australia.

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The incidence of sore throat and group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children at high risk of developing acute rheumatic fever: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    S. PearceA. BowenM. EngelMaya de la LandeD. Barth

    Medicine

    PloS one

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The limited Australian data lend support to the need for further studies to inform the role of GAS pharyngitis in the development of ARF in Australian Indigenous children, so as to inform local primary prevention strategies for ARF and Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD).

Ending rheumatic heart disease in Australia: the evidence for a new approach
    R. WyberK. Noonan J. Carapetis

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The Endgame Strategy provides the evidence for a new approach to RHD elimination and proposes an implementation framework of five priority action areas that focus on strategies to prevent new cases of ARF and RHD early in the causal pathway from Streptococcus pyogenes exposure to ARF, and strategies that address the critical systems and structural changes needed to support a comprehensive R HD elimination strategy.

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The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews
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The PRISMA 2020 27-item checklist, an expanded checklist that details reporting recommendations for each item, the PRISma 2020 abstract checklist, and the revised flow diagrams for original and updated reviews are presented.

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The Australian burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease: a narrative review
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A critical, interpretive analysis of publications that include lived experiences of RHD, informed by privileging Indigenous knowledges, perspectives and experiences, and drawing on Postcolonialism and Critical Race Theory is presented.

Barriers and Enablers of Health Service Utilisation for Childhood Skin Infections in Remote Aboriginal Communities of Western Australia
    D. HendrickxIngrid Amgarth-Duff R. Walker

    Medicine, Environmental Science

    International journal of environmental research…

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Health service utilisation in remote Aboriginal communities may be enhanced by improving general awareness of the significance of childhood skin infections, actively engaging parents and carers in consultation and treatment processes and strengthening community involvement in health service activities.

Invasive group A Streptococcus disease in Australian children: 2016 to 2018 – a descriptive cohort study
    J. OliverElise Thielemans Y. Zurynski

    Medicine, Environmental Science

    BMC Public Health

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The epidemiological distribution of paediatric iGAS disease in Australia is described and correlate this with influenza notifications, and GAS strains commonly associated with invasive disease in children are identified.

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    [PDF] The epidemiology of superficial Streptococcal A (impetigo and pharyngitis) infections in Australia: A systematic review | Semantic Scholar (2024)

    FAQs

    What is the epidemiology of streptococcal pharyngitis? ›

    Epidemiology of pharyngitis

    Although most cases are viral, S. pyogenes is the cause in 15–30% of the pharyngitis cases in children and 5–20% in adults. Cases usually occur in late winter and early spring (Choby, 2009). In Australia, the incidence of acute sore throat among school-aged children with culture-positive S.

    Is strep throat common in Australia? ›

    Strep A is a bacterial infection that causes 616 million sore throats and 500,000 deaths globally each year. In recent months, there has been an increase in the number of severe cases in a number of countries, including Australia.

    What is Streptococcus pyogenes group A? ›

    About group A streptococcal infection

    GAS is also known as Group A Strep, Strep A and Streptococcus pyogenes. Commonly, it causes throat infection (pharyngitis), tonsil infection (tonsillitis), scarlet fever, skin sores (impetigo) and skin infection (cellulitis).

    What antibiotics are used to treat group A strep? ›

    Group A streptococcus bacteria can be treated with common, inexpensive antibiotics. Penicillin is the drug of choice for both mild and severe disease. For penicillin-allergic patients with mild illness, erythromycin can be used, although occasional resistance has been seen.

    What is the epidemiology of strep A? ›

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) disease. iGAS infections account for 1·8 million cases worldwide, with a mortality rate of up to 20%, affecting both young and old individuals. These infections are often characterised by non-specific symptoms such as fever and pharyngodinia.

    What is the most common cause of strep pharyngitis? ›

    [1] However, when the cause is bacterial, pharyngitis is most often caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS), commonly referred to as strep throat.

    Can strep throat lead to impetigo? ›

    What Causes Impetigo? Two types of bacteria — Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococcus (which also causes strep throat) — usually cause impetigo. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is also becoming an important cause of impetigo.

    Why is strep A so bad this year? ›

    Several scientists agreed it may be a sheer numbers game, where higher rates of other illnesses — including old staples like flu and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), as well as COVID-19 — are providing strep bacteria with a massive pool of people already weakened by other infections.

    Where is strep throat most commonly found? ›

    Strep throat usually affects your throat and tonsils. But you can still get the infection if you don't have tonsils — it doesn't make you immune. However, if you've had your tonsils removed, your risk of getting strep throat decreases.

    What can strep turn into if untreated? ›

    Left untreated, strep throat can lead to kidney inflammation or rheumatic fever, a serious illness that can cause stroke and permanent damage to the heart. Fortunately, strep throat can be easily diagnosed with a simple throat culture, and promptly treated with a course of antibiotics.

    How serious is strep in the bloodstream? ›

    Blood infections: The strep bacteria can also get into your bloodstream, where they don't normally live. This is called “bacteremia.” If the strep bacteria release toxins in multiple organs, it can create another rare, life-threatening condition called “streptococcal toxic shock syndrome” that can cause organ failure.

    How serious is group A strep? ›

    Invasive Group A Strep disease is a severe and sometimes life threatening infection in which the bacteria have invaded parts of the body where bacteria are not usually found, such as the blood, deep muscle and fat tissue, or the lungs.

    Can you get rid of strep throat without antibiotics? ›

    Strep throat will last three to seven days without antibiotics. But leaving strep throat untreated can lead to complications and predispose you to other illnesses. Therefore, it is best to seek treatment.

    Can strep go away on its own? ›

    Strep throat usually goes away on its own within a week with or without antibiotic treatment, but without antibiotics, people may still be contagious for two to three weeks and are at a higher risk for complications.

    What is the strongest antibiotic for strep? ›

    Doctors most often prescribe penicillin or amoxicillin to treat strep throat. They are the top choices because they're safer, inexpensive, and they work well on strep bacteria.

    What is the incidence rate of pharyngitis? ›

    Pharyngitis is a common disorder in adults and children. In a prospective family study, 16% of adults and 41% of children reported an illness with sore throat over a 1-year time frame. The incidence rate of medically attended tonsillitis in children has been estimated at 15 to 25 cases per 1000 children per year.

    Where is streptococcal pharyngitis found? ›

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections occur when a microorganism (bacteria) enters your body and causes an illness, most often in your skin and throat. There are more than 120 strains of group A Streptococcus bacteria, which is the bacteria that causes group A streptococcal infections.

    What is the incidence of strep throat? ›

    Each year, some 600 million people worldwide contract strep throat, many of them children. Strep throat is easily treated with antibiotics; however undiagnosed or untreated strep throat can have serious complications, such as acute rheumatic fever, a major cause of acquired heart disease among young adults.

    In which age group is group A streptococcal pharyngitis most common? ›

    Group A strep pharyngitis is most common among children 5 through 15 years of age. It's rare in children younger than 3 years of age.

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